Transducer play a crucial role in the field of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process needs to be converted from one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to a different.
This is a device which converts one type of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electricity is changed into a power energy.
Kinds of transducer:
The two main types of transducers, these are: Active transducers and Passive transducers
Active transducers: Rotary Torque Sensor is a device which converts the given non-electricity into electrical power itself. Thermocouple, Photovoltaic cell and much more are the most useful types of the transducers
Passive transducers: Passive transducer is really a device which converts the given non-electrical power into electrical energy by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer are definitely the examples for that Passive transducers.
The piezoelectric effect is found in some materials (such as quartz) that have an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is used towards the structure, it produces an electric powered charge and, when an electric field is used, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” is derived from the Greek word for pressure.
A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or the other way round. Basically any kind of piezo mechanism could be known as a transducer. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to drive voltage changes and therefore are often used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are used in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The advantage of a piezo speaker spanning a magnetically driven speaker depends on the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness of the piezo ceramic plates that are used to move the speaker diaphragm film.
Sonar and ultrasound imaging can also be according to piezoelectrics. In this instance, the Compression Load Cell are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly increases the amplitude while reducing the input power concurrently, i.e. the system is operated at its highest efficiency.
Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer:
In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are usually known as a piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is typically used to generate forces or position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are often operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.
Piezo resistive sensors:
Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors which are very widely used for pressure sensing applications. They are sometimes used along with piezo actuators to supply position feedback or force feedback, as an example on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive means that the resistance changes with the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors usually do not generate a charge (energy) plus they cannot convert mechanical in electrical power and the other way around. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a wonderful choice for entry-level systems. Other sensors can be found when innovative performance is required.
Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators:
If operated under the right conditions, the latest generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators can also work for 10’s of billions of cycles.
Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping:
Because of their fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a great choice for active vibration cancellation.
Here, a vibration sensor is needed to give you the controller the right information about how to counteract the mechanical vibration by offering the right amplitude and phase output to the piezo actuator. The sensor could even become a piezo ceramic transducer, configured to respond to strain or pressure.
Momentum Compensation / Active Damping:
Any sort of rapid actuation will cause vibrations in a work piece. Based on Newton’s laws, this means, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the greater reactive forces it is going to cause. Just in case these forces are unwanted, another piezo mechanical system having a counter mass can be integrated and driven having a signal in the opposite phase. With a bit of fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel one another out and the work piece may now move quickly but without exerting any force on oygoqj surrounding structures. This trick is usually utilized in fast piezo steering mirrors for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.
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